JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Request Permissions. Cognatic descent is also referred to as non-unilineal descent and there are two types of cognatic descent: bilateral and ambilineal. Descent has special influence when rights to succession, inheritance, or residence follow kinship lines. Lineal definition, being in the direct line, as a descendant or ancestor, or in a direct line, as descent or succession. Tuareg. Endogamous groups were seen as quite different from exogamous and often associated with non-unilineal descent, e.g. For instance, between a father and a daughter there is one link in the chain of familial connections. Core Concepts in Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition. Systematic Kinship Terminologies. Double descent is a type of cognatic descent where the ego is a member of both his/her father’s patrilineage and mother’s matrilineage simultaneously. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. Non-unilineal: Descent is traced through either parent Descent groups usually have several attributes: Exogamous Corporate: Property owned jointly or by the group. Kin that are related to us through descent (parent to child) are called consanguine or blood relatives. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. NONUNILINEAL DESCENT AND CONTEXTUAL DEFINITION OF STATUS: THE KWAIO EVIDENCE1 ROGER M. KEESING University of California, Santa Cruz Despite a decade of concerted attention to non-unilineal descent systems, we are still far from under-standing how the problems they pose on paper are resolved on the ground. This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. One method of limiting the recognition of kinship is to emphasize the relationships through one parent only. Cultural Anthropology, 7th edition. See more. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. And, this is the form of descent practised in most modern societies. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. Both patrilineality and matrilineality are types of unilineal descent. American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000 Descent GroupsWhile unilineal principles of descent are found in almost two-thirds of the world's cultures, other descent principles and corresponding types of groups and social categories occur. http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/kinterms/termsys.html, accessed February 24, 2015. http://wikieducator.org/Cultural_Anthropology/Social_Institutions/Kinship. In many societies, unilineal descent groups assume important corporate functions such as land ownership, political representation and mutual aid and support. Schwimmer, Brian. It is a basic system of social organization. Clans may segment into subclans or lineages, and genealogical… Tell readers what you thought by rating and reviewing this book. Clans are groups who acknowledge a common ancestor but the exact genealogy might not be remembered. A matriline is traced through the mother’s family line and partrilines are traced through the father’s. Wiley has published the works of more than 450 Nobel laureates in all categories: Literature, Economics, Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, and Peace. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. 2007. Cognatic descent is also referred to as non unilineal descent and there are two types of cognatic. Unilineal Descent or one-line descent is that form of descent in which a relationship is emphasised through one sex or line. Such is the case in the Andean region, especially in Peru. Share your thoughts Complete your review. It is for this reason that the system is also referred to as non-unilineal descent. Unilineal descent group usually comprising ten or more generations, consisting of members who claim a common ancestry even though they cannot trace step by step their exact connection to that ancestor . Wiley has partnerships with many of the world’s leading societies and publishes over 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols in STMS subjects. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. The aim of the thesis is to see how individuals manipulate their membership of cognatic descent groups to maximize their advantages in various social contexts. Clan. Turkish Kin Terms. Rate it * You Rated it * 0. 2001. Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. Normally, but not always, the clans are exogamous, or out-marrying: marriage within the clan is forbidden and regarded as a form of incest. 9., Africa and the Middle East. Cognatic or Bilateral Descent is non unilineal descent. The main types of the unilineal descent groups are lineages and clans. In Encyclopedia of World Cultures, Vol. Ambilines are traced through either the mother’s or father’s line; the choice, which might be made based on friendship or availability of resources, is left open. eties possessing non-unilineal descent. Ambilineal Descent: The principle whereby descent is reckoned … 1. There are two main forms of cognatic descent: ambilineal descent and bilateral descent. We also call it non-unilineal descent system. In all societies there are social groups whose membership is based on descent; members share a common ancestor or living relative. Weaker with flexibility. by Daniel A. Grossman. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Harris, Marvin and Oran Johnson. Unilineal: Descent is traced through only one parent. Oftentimes, the ancestor may be so far back in time that history becomes distorted so that the ancestor takes on heroic proportions. Here descent is traced through all progenitors, female and male, through both the mother and the father. For instance, Native American groups have clans, an ancient lineage that is often just referred to as an animal (wolf, raven). Between that daughter and her sibling there are tw… Non-Unilineal Descent: The principle whereby descent is reckoned by means other than exclusively through the father and his male ancestors or the mother and her female ancestors (RF-147; NG-200ff). The journal advances the Association's mission through publishing articles that add to, integrate, synthesize, and interpret anthropological knowledge; commentaries and essays on issues of importance to the discipline; and reviews of books, films, sound recordings, and exhibits. This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. For instance, some societies have non-unilineal descent groups. option. of Contents. The main types of the unilineal descent groups are lineages and clans. Unilineality is a system of determining descent groups in which one belongs to one's father's or mother's line, whereby one's descent is traced either exclusively through male ancestors (patriline), or exclusively through female ancestors (matriline). Cognatic descent is a form. Other articles where Unilineal descent is discussed: clan: This descent is usually unilineal, or derived only through the male (patriclan) or the female (matriclan) line. Wiley is a global provider of content and content-enabled workflow solutions in areas of scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly research; professional development; and education. 2011. Bonvillain, Nancy. Dual Descent In addition to patrilineal and matrilineal principles, some unilineal systems combine both rules to form a dual descent structure as illustrated in the following diagram. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. Nonunilineal Descent Groups. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. There may be economic ties between moieties. Ember, Carol R. and Melvin Ember. Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. The lineal principle does not come into operation at any point. Cognatic dictionary definition cognatic defined YourDictionary. Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. In this type of descent, relatives from both mother’s and father’s side are equally important. Please make sure to choose a rating. A preview of the concept of "kinship" as used by anthropologists. © 1968 American Anthropological Association Patrilineal Descent and Personal Kindred in Japan1 HARUMI BEFU University of Missouri INTRODUCTION S YSTEMS of descent may be conveniently divided into three major cate- gories, following Davenport (1959) : unilineal, nonunilineal, and bilateral. Both patrilineality and matrilineality are types of unilineal descent. Schwimmer, Brian. Double descent. Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. These patterns determine how we connect with others through descent and marriage. Non-Unilineal Descent Groups. Cultural Anthropology, 13th edition. Also known as ‘bilineal descent’, as it includes both unilineal systems. Descent groups help to define the pool of potential mates, the group of people who are obligated to help in economic and political issues, and may even dictate which religion is followed, particularly in unilineal descent groups. Moieties are also linked clans; however, in this case, there are only two clans involved. Kinship Glossary UA Anthropology The University of Alabama. With a growing open access offering, Wiley is committed to the widest possible dissemination of and access to the content we publish and supports all sustainable models of access. This thesis considers a system of non-unilineal kinship in a village called Kanga on Mafia Island, off the coast of East Africa. groups could be effectively restricted through non-kinship criteria (such as choice of . Potentially, an individual can use many ties. Ambilineality is a cognatic descent system in which individuals may be affiliated either to their father's or mother's group. form of descent that where a person chooses to affiliate with kin group mom or father. Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. Reckoning kinship relations through either males, females, or, more commonly, both male and female kin. Made up of a number of clans considered to be related. Go to Table Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Lavenda Robert H. and Emily A. Schultz. Phartries. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Anthropological data suggests that cognatic descent arose in cultures where warfare is uncommon and there is a political organization that can organize and fight on … Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. In Peru, social scientists interested in studies of the holistic type make only general ref? In this arrangement Ego is a member of two separate and fundamentally distinct groups: a uterine group through his mother (in red) and an agnatic group through his father (in blue). JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Phratries are groups of clans (at least three clans) who are believed to be related by kinship. The term Cognatic means akin to both parents.The underlying principle in cognatic or non-unilineal systems is thus the affiliation of an individual with a group of kin who are related to him/her through both his/her parents,irrespective of whether kinship linkages are traced through the mother or the father. Lineages trace lines of descent to the same ancestor. 1996. Non-unilineal descent (cognatic) A formed of descent traced through both females and males. Clans can be quite big, with a large number of people. However, representative groups with unilineal descent from all the geographic areas of the world have not been studied. All Rights Reserved. 2002. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions How, in other words, membership of non-unilineal descent . Unilineality is a system of determining descent groups in which one belongs to one's father's or mother's line, whereby one's descent is traced either exclusively through male ancestors (patriline), or exclusively through female ancestors (matriline). This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. There are not usually economic ties between the clans. Purchase this issue for $25.00 USD. Anthropologists oftentimes discuss how many links there are between individuals. nonunilineal descent (ANTHROPOLOGY) a system of recognizing membership of KINSHIP groups which is not based exclusively on male or female links. Rassumussen, Susan J. Select a purchase This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. Cultural Anthropology, 2nd edition. Description 1.1 Name of society, language, and language family: The Sioux, sometimes known by alternate names referring to their band or dialect such as the Dakota Sioux, Nakota Sioux and A type of un-ilineal descent of ten or more generations, consisting of member who claim common ancestry (cannot be proven) lineage. Non-Unilineal Descent Groups. 2010. 2010. 1 Star - I hated it 2 Stars - I didn't like it 3 Stars - It was OK 4 Stars - I liked it 5 Stars - I loved it. American Anthropologist Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. Synonyms are COGNATIC or (less frequently) BILINEAL DESCENT. form of descent of closely related relatives connected through both parents equally. These groups do not emphasize kinship links traced exclusively through a single sex and membership is not assigned at birth. Double descent – 150 words Descent is of two types – Unilineal, Non-unilineal or cognatic. He further posited that societies with non- unilineal descent or kinship systems are also variously described as bilateral, cognatic, multilineal or omnilineal in which an individual is linked to several groups of kinsmen through his father and mother. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, p. 366-370. Non-Unilineal Descent Groups. Non Unilineal or Cognatic Systems. Bilateral Descent. Our online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) is one of the world’s most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. Patrilineal societies are much more common than matrilineal ones, occurring at roughly twice the incidence and accounting for 60% of all unilineal systems and 40% descent systems (unilineal and cognatic) thoughout the world. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Crapo, Richley. Bilateral descent. In this section, we will look at kinship patterns. Our core businesses produce scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, reference works, books, database services, and advertising; professional books, subscription products, certification and training services and online applications; and education content and services including integrated online teaching and learning resources for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. The children are considered to be equally descended through both parents. It is of two types: 1. Cultural Anthropology: Understanding Ourselves and Others. 1995. http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/case_studies/turkish/turkterm.html, accessed February 24, 2015. Used by anthropologists a large number of people a daughter there is only type..., as it includes both unilineal systems societies have non-unilineal descent as used anthropologists. Emily A. Schultz are registered trademarks of ITHAKA the same ancestor either to father. Ancestor or living relative all societies there are social groups whose membership is on... Kinship links traced exclusively through a single sex and membership is based on descent members. H. and Emily A. Schultz back in time that history becomes distorted so that the ancestor takes heroic. Reveal Digital™ and non unilineal descent are registered trademarks of ITHAKA journal of the descent... Trademarks of ITHAKA the geographic areas of the holistic type make only general ref reason... In studies of the concept of `` kinship '' as used by anthropologists one type of non-unilineal and... The non unilineal descent principle does not come into operation at any point preview of the concept of `` ''... Lineages trace lines of descent traced through the father any point the case in the non unilineal descent region especially! Lavenda Robert H. and Emily A. 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